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HISTORY (MUGHAL EMPIRE)

BABUR Descendent of Timur (from his father side) and Genghis khan (from his mother side)It is said that he was invited in India by Daulat Khan Lodi and Alam kha lodiHe laid the foundation of the Mughal empire by defeating Ibrahim Lodi in the first battle of Panipat on 21, April 1526.In 1527, he defeated Rana Sanga of Mewar at Khanwa.In 1528, he defeated Medini Rai of Chaneri at Chanderi.In 1529, he defeated Muhammad Lodhi (uncle of Ibrahim Lodhi) at Ghaghra.In 1530, he died at Agra. His tomb is at Lahore. The tomb of only two Mughal emperors are outside India i.e. Babur & Bahadur Shah ZafarHe was the first to use gunpowder & artillery in India.Two gun masters Mustafa & Ustad Ali were in his armyHe wrote his autobiography Tuzuk-i-Baburi in Turki.Tuzuk-i-Baburi was translated in Persian (named Baburnama) by Abdur Rahim Khan-e-khana & in English by Madan Bebridge.He compiled two anthologies of poems, Diwan (in Turki) & Mubaiyan (in Persian). He also wrote Risal-i-Usaz …

PHYSICS (SOUND)

Think like a proton and stay positive


Sound waves are mechanical longitudinal waves and require a medium for their propagation.





Sound cannot propagate through vacuum. When it propagates, speed and wavelength changes but the frequency remain constant. It is of three types Infrasonic waves – (0 to 20 Hz) Audible waves – (20 to 20,000 Hz) Ultrasonic waves – (>20,000 Hz)


Properties of Sound Wave Reflection The bouncing back of sound when it strikes a hard surface, is called reflection of sound.The laws of reflection of light are also obeyed during reflection of sound.The working of megaphone, soundboards, and ear trumpets are based on the reflection of sound.The repetition of sound due to reflection of sound waves, is called an echo.


The minimum distance from a sound-reflecting surface to hear an echo is nearly 17 m.The persistence of hearing on the human ear is 1/10th of a second.
Soundproof rooms are made of two layers of walls having a vacuum between them. 
Reverberation It arises due to mul…

MATH MENSURATION 2-D