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Back stairs gossip                             Talk among servants/ unfair talks.

At stake                                              at risk and insecure.

At one’s wit’s end                             Puzzled / confused / perplexed.

At ease                                               Free from pain and anxiety.

At arm’s length                                 Avoid becoming too friendly.

At a loss                                             to be unable to decide.

Apple of one’s eye                             Very lovable/ dearest one.

An olive branch                                 Peace request/ peace treaty.

An old flame                                      A person, one had a romantic relationship with, in the past.

An axe to grind                                  Something done for selfish reasons.

Add fuel to fire                                  to make a matter worse.

Achilles’ heels                                   A small but fatal weakness.

An iron-will                                        Strong will power.

Cross swords                                      to quarrel or fight.

Cry for the moon                               to desire the unattainable.

Damocles’ sword                               Constant threat.

Die in harness                                   Die while in service.

Cut no ice                                          to fail to make an impression.

Cry over spilled milk                        Regret in vain for what cannot be undone.

Eat humble pie                                  to apologize.

Eat one’s words                                 Take a statement back.

Die a dog’s death                              to die a shameful death.

Dark horse                                         One who wins unexpectedly.

Dance to one’s tune                         Obeying one's order.

End in smoke                                    Come to nothing.

Fair weather friend                           Selfish friends who are with us


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BABUR Descendent of Timur (from his father side) and Genghis khan (from his mother side)It is said that he was invited in India by Daulat Khan Lodi and Alam kha lodiHe laid the foundation of the Mughal empire by defeating Ibrahim Lodi in the first battle of Panipat on 21, April 1526.In 1527, he defeated Rana Sanga of Mewar at Khanwa.In 1528, he defeated Medini Rai of Chaneri at Chanderi.In 1529, he defeated Muhammad Lodhi (uncle of Ibrahim Lodhi) at Ghaghra.In 1530, he died at Agra. His tomb is at Lahore. The tomb of only two Mughal emperors are outside India i.e. Babur & Bahadur Shah ZafarHe was the first to use gunpowder & artillery in India.Two gun masters Mustafa & Ustad Ali were in his armyHe wrote his autobiography Tuzuk-i-Baburi in Turki.Tuzuk-i-Baburi was translated in Persian (named Baburnama) by Abdur Rahim Khan-e-khana & in English by Madan Bebridge.He compiled two anthologies of poems, Diwan (in Turki) & Mubaiyan (in Persian). He also wrote Risal-i-Usaz …


Think like a proton and stay positive

Sound waves are mechanical longitudinal waves and require a medium for their propagation.

Sound cannot propagate through vacuum. When it propagates, speed and wavelength changes but the frequency remain constant. It is of three types Infrasonic waves – (0 to 20 Hz) Audible waves – (20 to 20,000 Hz) Ultrasonic waves – (>20,000 Hz)

Properties of Sound Wave Reflection The bouncing back of sound when it strikes a hard surface, is called reflection of sound.The laws of reflection of light are also obeyed during reflection of sound.The working of megaphone, soundboards, and ear trumpets are based on the reflection of sound.The repetition of sound due to reflection of sound waves, is called an echo.

The minimum distance from a sound-reflecting surface to hear an echo is nearly 17 m.The persistence of hearing on the human ear is 1/10th of a second.
Soundproof rooms are made of two layers of walls having a vacuum between them. 
Reverberation It arises due to mul…