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CHEMISTRY BASE AND SALTS

Think like a proton and stay positive


chemistry base and salts


BASES AND ALKALIES


  • Base is a substance that gives OH-ions when dissolved in water.
  • Bases are usually metal hydroxides (MOH).
  • According to Bronsted-Lowry theory, a base is a proton acceptor.
  • The pH range of bases is from 8 – 14.
  • Bases are soapy substances with a bitter taste.

  • The strength of a base depends on the concentration of the hydroxyl ions when it is dissolved in water.

  • Bases soluble in water are called alkalies. All alkalies are bases but all bases are not alkalies.
  • Lose their basicity when mixed with water.
  • Bases turns red litmus paper to blue.


chemistry base and salts




COMMON BASES

Aluminum hydroxide              
antacids, deodorants
Ammonium hydroxide         
glass cleaner
Calcium hydroxide                  
caustic lime, mortar, plaster
Magnesium hydroxide            
laxatives, antacids
Sodium bicarbonate/sodium hydrogen carbonate
baking soda
Sodium carbonate                  
dish detergent
Sodium hydroxide                  
lye, oven and drain cleaner
Sodium hypochlorite
bleach



SALTS

  • When acid and base solutions are mixed in proper proportion than their own nature is destroyed and Salt is formed.
  • Acid turns blue litmus red and base turns red litmus blue.
  • Formation of salts after mixing base and acidic is called a neutralization reaction.




USES OF SALTS IN INDUSTRIES


  • Sodium chloride is used in the manufacture of chlorine, caustic soda, washing soda and baking soda.
  • Ammonium salts are used as fertilizers.
  • Potassium nitrate is used in the manufacture of gun powder and fireworks.
  • Silver nitrate is used in photography.
  • Potassium chlorate is used in the match industry.
  • Aluminum sulphate is used in preparing alums.




BUFFER SOLUTION

  • The solutions that resist the change in its PH value on the addition of a small amount of acid or base are called buffer solutions.
  • Acidic buffer solution has PH value less than 7.
  • Basic buffer has PH value greater than 7.
  • PH value of blood is maintained with the help of H2CO3/HCO3 buffer in spite of many acidic foods we eat.




pH SCALE

  • The p in pH stands for ‘potenz’ in German, meaning power.
  • The scale that measures the strength of an acid or a base is called the Ph scale. This value lies between 0 and 14.
  • Higher the hydronium ion concentration, lower is the pH value.
  • The pH of a neutral solution is 7. Values less than 7 on the pH scale represents an acidic solution. As the pH value increases from 7 to 14, it represents an increase in OH– ion concentration in the solution, that is, increase in the strength of alkali.



chemistry base and salts



MATH TRIGONOMETRYMATH TRIGONOMETRY
MATH TRIGONOMETRYMATH TRIGONOMETRY





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